It is the harmless and progressive growth of the tissue that covers a scar produced by cuts, Burns, punctures or incisions. Keloids appear more often among blacks than Caucasians. Doctors do not know exactly what causes keloid.
During the first months the keloids are pink or red; then they lose color. They are itchy frequently and are sometimes soft, especially when they are in contact with clothing. Discomfort and discomfort can be minimized, abiding by the following standards:
■ Dress the child in loose silk and nylon clothing, avoiding cotton and wool.
■ Make sure the child does not get hot.
■ Give gentle lanolin massages daily.
There is a possibility that the doctor will recommend an X-ray treatment or the injection of a special cortisone preparation., which will perhaps reduce the size and discomfort of the keloid.
Sometimes, the doctor may remove a very bothersome keloid. Unfortunately they tend to reproduce, even after being removed.
They range from insignificant annoyances to serious injuries that
can cause mutilations and even death. Burns are classified into three grades according to their severity.
The first degree is when only redness of the skin occurs, but no blister forms. In the second grade, the burn causes redness of the skin and blisters. In the third degree the skin and tissues are destroyed, being able to penetrate deeper into the body and cause serious injury.
Small first degree burns, are usually not serious and require minimal treatment. To lessen the pain, simply put the burned area under cold water for a few minutes or apply an ice pack. If the pain persists you can put a little petroleum jelly and cover it with a gauze. Margarine will not be used, butter or other greasy material.
In small second degree burns, the same procedure as above will be followed, but a doctor will be consulted for any second degree burn, because if a blister breaks, an infection may start.
Third degree burns and those of the first and second that affect a large area are more serious. The child will be wrapped in a clean sheet, to prevent infection, and the burned area will be submerged in cold water (21°). If a very large area has been burned, will enter the bathtub filled with cold water, as it relieves pain and prevents further tissue destruction. If there is no possibility to submerge the burned part in water, wet compresses will be used. No greasy substances or other home remedies will be applied and the doctor will be consulted immediately.
When a child is seriously burned, you may have a shock. In this case, the child will be laid flat on the floor and wrapped in a light blanket. Your feet will be kept elevated by placing a folded blanket underneath, a pillow or other object. If the child is conscious and can swallow, you will be given water.
If the child was burned by a chemical, the area will be washed immediately with running water, using a hose, shower or throwing water at it with a bucket or other container, and meanwhile the clothes will be removed from the burned area, while you continue to throw water.
Sunburns are the skin's reaction to the natural ultraviolet rays of the sun or the artificial ones produced by a quartz lamp. Minor burns make the skin red, the serious ones ulcerate it and produce fever.
Softening creams will be applied to minor burns. When they are serious, the child will be given aspirin to lower the fever and they will be made to drink plenty of fluids. In the affected place, Cold water compresses will be applied to relieve pain and if it does not improve, the doctor will be notified.
The surest way to avoid serious burns is to stay in the sun for a short time the first few days. (fifteen minutes maybe) and gradually increase the exposure time. With this system, the skin creates defenses that protect it from the sun. Oils and tans- tors can also provide some protection.
Children with fair skin and especially redheads are prone to burns. However, any kind of skin (even the darkest) it will burn if it remains in the sun for a long time. A child will not be allowed to spend too much time in the sun, particularly on the beach, since the solar rays reflected by the water, intensify its effects. Even cloudy days can be dangerous on the beach.
They are fluid-filled bags that form in the body and generally do not have an opening.. The envelope is what produces the material of its content.
Cysts come in all sizes and can form anywhere on the body. They can be congenital (the child was born with them) or produced when a gland opening becomes blocked. Sometimes the cause cannot be determined. Cysts are very rarely malignant.
There are cysts that disappear spontaneously262
at, although they often must be treated by surgery. Some, like thyroglossal cyst (in the neck) they have a tendency to become infected and others must be removed because they interfere with the normal functioning of an organ, for example lung cysts that make breathing difficult.
Superficial cysts under the skin are easily removed in the same doctor's office, but those deeper in the abdomen or chest require a major operation and hospitalization.
It is a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D. Sometimes it is because the child does not eat enough foods rich in vitamin D. Other times it is due to a hereditary defect that prevents absorption. Rickets is a rare condition in developed countries.
In most cases it manifests before the age of three. The child's bones do not calcify (harden) adequately, they are soft and they bend. Rickets in its most acute phase causes the legs to acquire an arc shape and the deformation of the bones of the skull, of the spine and pelvis. The malformation of the bones can be corrected if it is not too severe. If proper treatment is not started, bones can harden into a vicious position and permanently deform the child.
Although food and milk enriched with vitamin D and frequent exposure to sunlight are enough to prevent rickets, the doctor will not always rely on these only sources and will prescribe extra doses of vitamin.
They are instructions written by the doctor to prevent or treat diseases. Most prescriptions are made up of specific medications, but they also include diets, physical therapies and exercises. At the top of the recipe there is usually an "R" which is the Latin initial of the word recipe. Doctors used to write the entire content of the prescription in Latin, but today they do it in their language, except for some letters or symbols.
It will be ensured that the prescriptions are dispatched by a qualified pharmacist and the doctor's instructions for the administration of the medication will be followed exactly. It should be noted that almost all medications are harmful when taken in amounts greater than necessary.
Another precaution to remember is the following: not give any family member prescription medications for another, even if the symptoms seem similar. The treatment and cause of your other illness may be totally different.
It is the operation of counting the blood cells in a certain blood sample. This sample is usually taken from one of the fingers of the hand or the earlobe.. Counting is done by examining the sample under a microscope. Blood contains several types of cells that each have a special role in the body. The most important cells are the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Normal blood contains these cells in a certain proportion.
Red blood cells are bright in color due to a pigment called hemoglobin, which contains iron and also fixes oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the body's tissues. White blood cells attack and engulf germs and prevent infection. Platelets, which are like very small discs, intervene, as we saw, in blood clotting.
Blood count provides the doctor with vital information. So, a low red blood cell count indicates anemia. A high white blood cell count indicates infection. A totally normal count is a sign of good health.
See also Anemia; Blood clotting; Blood groups
When the child's breathing is suspended for any reason, you will be given artificial respiration, while someone else goes for more help. If the cause of respiratory arrest is due to drowning in water, the patient will be placed on the floor, face down, tilting your head and pressing on your back before starting artificial respiration, as this draws water out of the pharynx and trachea.
The purpose of artificial respiration is to open the passage from the mouth to the lungs and circulate the air in and out of the lungs by alternating expansion and contraction of the chest..
Mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration (also called the kiss of death), it is the most effective way that can be used in children. It is the way to provide positive pressure to inflate the lungs. It is also the best way to give an idea of the pressure, volume and rhythm necessary to the person who performs it.. When artificial respiration is being carried out on a child, care should be taken that the insufflations are of little volume of air so that they are only a complement to their light inspirations., which will be one every three seconds, approximately.
At the time of blowing into a child's mouth (or in the mouth and nose at the same time) the lungs fill with air and the chest expands. If this does not happen, something is blocking the passage of air to the lung, having to make sure again that there is nothing in the mouth and also that the chin is directed upwards and the lower jaw is pushed down.
And, after reassurance of the position of the mouth and chin, the child cannot breathe yet, immediately turn to his side and hit him hard several times, between the shoulders. This may mobilize a foreign body, that may not have been seen and is found in the upper part of the throat. When it comes to a very young child, the airways can be emptied by holding it upside down, held by the ankles, or keeping the head bowed down with one hand and goal with the other- hitting him with energy between the shoulders.
Artificial respiration should be continued until the child begins his own breathing or until professional help arrives..
Knees, faulty attitude of
Sometimes it happens that the legs bend inwards and the knees come too close together. A child with this defect, your toes may also tilt in and your heels out. In some cases it is the result of the postural habit of the legs, being more common in children who weigh a lot. The vicious attitude is getting worse until the 5 oh 6 years and then gradually improves. Many times it corrects itself without the need for treatment, towards the 9 years. However, if it is an excessively visible defect, the doctor will recommend orthopedic shoes or a regimen to reduce the child's weight.
Other times this faulty attitude is the result of injury or illness.. If the cause is an injury, only one knee is affected. In these cases, the position is not corrected over time and it is necessary to resort to orthopedic means or surgery.
See also Obesity; Curved legs; Pies, care of the; Flat feet
It is characterized by a skin rash, accompanied by fever. Doctors believe it is caused by a virus. It usually affects children from six months to three years. It is the most common disease (producing fever and skin rash) in children under two years of age.
Typically starts at 39 ° or 40 ° C temperature. After three or four days, it suddenly drops to normal or even below it.. So, on the chest, a rash of small, flat pink spots appears on the abdomen and neck. It is very rare that it spreads to the face, arms and legs. Lasts a day or two, but sometimes it disappears after a few hours. The disease generally immunizes.
The doctor should be notified if these symptoms are observed.. He will probably prescribe aspirin to reduce fever and fluids to prevent deshi- dratation. No need to isolate.
It is also called the German or three-day measles and is a contagious disease caused by a virus. The child can be vaccinated against it after one year of age.
Rubella occurs in children between the ages of five and fifteen and commonly appears in late winter and spring..
The first symptoms are moderate fever, sore throat, headache, hardening and swelling of the glands in the neck and behind the ears and possible pinkish rash, starting to appear among the 14 and 21 days after contagion.
The rash starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body, lasting two or three days. In the beginning, the spots are separated and progressively unite. In very young children, the rash may be the first symptom.
Most cases are so mild that bedtime is not necessary. There is a danger of contagion from seven days before the eruption appears, up to five days later. After suffering from the disease, is immunized. It is advisable for girls to suffer from the disease during childhood, because if when they are pregnant they catch it during the first three months of pregnancy, the child can be born with cataracts, deafness, mental retardation and other defects. If a pregnant woman was exposed to a case of rubella, you should go to the doctor as soon as possible.
See also Contagious diseases; Immunization; Virus