Measles, Rash, Sepsis, Sinusitis, Heart murmur, Deafness, Dream, Suppositories

Posted in 15 - Guide for parents, Medical guide


Measles

It is a very contagious disease caused by a virus. It can be prevented by vaccination and most doctors recommend it to avoid the complications that this disease can bring..
The first symptoms are similar to those of the common cold. The child has a dry cough, red, watery eyes and fever sometimes rises quickly, that appears about ten days after contracting the disease. Then, after a day or two, small white spots appear on the inside of the cheeks, near the lower molars. Two days later a skin rash develops, red color. Start at the hairline, extends through the trunk and after three days reaches the feet.
It is better to notify the doctor if symptoms of measles are noticed. Will probably advise the child to stay in bed, in a room that is partially dark, if the light bothers you. He may prescribe a cough reliever medication. While the fever lasts, the child totally loses his appetite, so the doctor will suggest that the diet is composed mainly of liquids.

One of the first symptoms of measles is the appearance of white spots on the inside of the cheeks, near molars.
A rash in the form of red spots is the surest symptom of measles. It starts at the hairline.
Despite the fact that in this case the rash is very well distinguished, usually barely visible on dark skin.

The child with measles, can usually get up when the fever has stopped for a couple of days. Within a week of the appearance of the rash, can go outside and play with other children, since the disease is spread five days before and five days after the rash appears. After this, the child is immunized forever.

Some complications caused by measles are: pneumonia, otitis, bronchitis and encephalitis. From the first year, the child is ready to receive the measles vaccine. After vaccination, some doctors inoculate gamma globulin to prevent or lessen the reaction. When a child who has not been vaccinated is exposed to the disease, gamma globulin may be given to provide temporary immunity or to ease symptoms, if you contract the disease.
See also Contagious diseases; Gamma globulin; Immunization; Virus.

Heat rash.

The rash is a skin rash, caused by excessive heat or humidity, in which it is covered with some red specks that look like grains, acquiring the area around them a similar color.
It occurs especially in areas of the body where sweat accumulates and in children and newborns it is located in the folds of the groin, neck and shoulders.

The rash causes itching and, scratching, the child worsens the irritation and the skin becomes ulcerated and can become infected. Remedy should be sought immediately. The child will be washed or bathed frequently, with cold water (at room temperature). You will not be put on clothes that could make the rash worse and your skin will be exposed to help keep it dry. The child's room will be well ventilated and it will be ensured that the temperature does not exceed 21 ° C. Medications are not necessary if the newborn can be kept fresh and clean.

A layer of talcum powder will be applied three or four times a day, after cold bath. If the problem is not solved, the doctor will be notified.

A rash caused by heat or excessive humidity is a rash consisting of red bumps.. The skin that surrounds them also acquires this color.

Sepsis

Sepsis is the penetration into the bloodstream of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Although microbes can penetrate at the time of injury, they usually do it from another infected point of the body, for example, an appendicitis, pneumonia, a grain, a pharyngitis, tonsillitis or a dental infection.
The child who has sepsis will develop a high fever and possibly develop a dermatosis. As the infection spreads throughout the body, a red streak or line may appear on an arm or leg, and the lymph nodes in the armpit or groin become swollen. When this happens, the doctor will be called immediately or the child will be taken to the nearest hospital, where you will be treated for infection.

Sepsis occurs more often in very young children, since they are less able to defend themselves against infection, and it spreads throughout the body, more easily. In rare cases, the child does not produce the necessary antibodies to protect against infection., and these cause repetitive septic processes.

Sinusitis

It is the inflammation of one or more sinuses or cranial cavities lined by a mucosa that is the same as the nose (there it is). When the child gets constipated or has some other nasal infection, it often passes to the mucosa of the sinuses.

The frontal sinuses are over the eyes. The jaws in the cheek bones. The ethmoid over the nasal cavity. The sphenoids behind the ethmoids.

Normally nasal mucus passes from the sinuses to the nose, through small openings. When the mucosa of the sinuses becomes infected, becomes inflamed and blocks the passage, breast pressure increases and the child suffers from sharp pains in one or both cheeks, of a severe headache without being able to pinpoint the exact place, his face may swell. If the sinusitis is chronic, symptoms are not as acute and there may be mucus in the nose (sometimes foul smelling).

If a child is suspected of having sinusitis, the doctor will be notified, who can recommend nasal drops, a decongestant by mouth or antibiotics. Home treatment should include humidification of the child's room and warm compresses on the nose.

Suffocation

see suffocation

Heart murmur

There is a very common group of heart murmurs called functional or innocuous. They are typical of adolescence, they are not important and tend to disappear on their own.

Other murmurs are caused by the passage of the bloodstream through a hole narrowed by disease or appear from birth, as blood passes through holes in the walls of the heart.
Murmurs are sometimes discovered on a routine medical examination. Most are not dangerous or interfere with the normal life of the child.

Deafness

It is the total or partial inability to hear. In the child who hears normally, the waves pass through the ear canal and hit the eardrum, very thin membrane that separates the external auditory canal from a small chamber where there are three small bones that, along with the eardrum, form the middle ear. When the eardrum moves, transmits movement through the bones - hammer, anvil and stapes - to the inner ear. Here the snail changes the vibrations into nerve impulses that go along the auditory nerve to the brain.. Deafness is the result of any event that interferes with any of these parts.

There are three main types of deafness. If the sound waves are not conducted properly to the inner ear, deafness is called-conduction. If they reach the inner ear but are not transformed into nerve impulses, is called nervous or perceptual deafness and when it is due to both disorders, driving – perception, it's called mixed deafness.

Causes of deafness. Deafness can develop before birth (hereditary) the be provoked, whether the mother had rubella or other illnesses or took certain medications during pregnancy.
May appear after birth, from various diseases or injuries and especially from fractured head injuries and concussions. Perceptual deafness can be caused by rubella, the measles, meningitis, the mumps, scarlet fever and whooping cough. Adenoiditis, tonsillitis and the common cold, can cause temporary deafness if the infection reaches the middle ear. Obstruction also produces deafness, by accumulation of wax, a boil or pimple, or a small object that has been left inside the ear canal. When the eardrum is ruptured by a sharp object, a violent noise or sneeze, deafness occurs.
How deafness is detected. Signs that may make you suspect deafness are:

■ From birth to six months. At this age the child does not respond or is surprised by the noises; does not distinguish between a complacent or angry voice. Doesn't turn head in the direction sounds are coming from.
■ From six to eighteen months. The child does not understand the words. Can already make some repeated sounds. Does not turn his head towards noises in response to them.
■ From eighteen months onwards. The child still does not say words and makes his wishes known by pointing to objects and through gestures. When naming an object it is not able to identify it. Depends more on vision than hearing.

If there is any doubt about a child's deafness, the doctor will be communicated, who may recommend that you visit an otologist and explore it conveniently.

To determine the hearing status of the child there are several tests. The use of the voice is used, of its tonality, gaze and audiometer (electronic device that measures the child's hearing acuity, from the lowest to the highest sounds). This device is used for the doctor to determine the degree of deafness, its character and whether or not treatment can be undertaken.

The audiometer record also serves to be able to compare the evolution of deafness and see if the patient improved, worsened or no change at all.

Deafness and language. Detection of deafness is always important, but especially in very young children, since the word develops thanks to hearing. The deaf child from birth cannot learn to speak without special practice. To the 4 oh 5 years will go to specialized schools where they have education programs for children and also for parents, teaching them how to guide the child, even before he goes to school. There are also educational programs for parents, that can be followed by correspondence, in order to empower them to help their children's development. With a special education, the deaf child may be a mature person capable of being fully self-reliant.

A child with partial deafness needs special language classes, since not hearing all the sounds, he pronounces words as he hears them and therefore will have speech defects. You also need educational assistance and perhaps medical treatment.

A child with partial hearing loss usually needs special language classes.

Devices used in deafness. These devices consist of a microphone,an amplifier (also called transmitter) and a receiver. The microphone picks up sounds, the amplifier makes them more intense and transmits them to the receiver by means of a wire. The receiver is small and is placed on the child's ear. The amplifiers are constructed so that they can be carried in your jacket pocket or elsewhere where you can freely receive the sounds.

There are two types of appliances: those that help air conduction and those that help bone conduction; the first amplifies the sound by transmitting it directly to the ear. The second transmits the sound waves to a bony region of the head, usually the mastoid, that is behind the ear. Those that help air conduction are the best known and most effective, although in children those that contribute to bone conduction are used more since for these, the part that is inserted inside the ear is very uncomfortable.

Devices do not normalize hearing, but they amplify it to the point where the sounds are heard by the child. Voices may sound different to these children, since they lack some quality and timbre of normal sounds. This has been observed especially in those who had heard normally and lost their hearing due to some disease or injury..

The partially deaf child can hear some sounds better than others and then the amplifier can be adjusted to amplify the tones that he has more difficulty hearing.. These devices help to hear the noises of cars, important measure due to the danger of not being able to capture them.

It will be a specialist who determines whether or not the child needs an amplifying device or if he should use it all day or only when he most needs it.; for example at school.

A device for deafness, help the child hear a car approaching.
The apparatus (left), has a microphone that picks up sound waves and amplifies them. The sound is transmitted to the child's ear by a receiver that he carries with him.

Dream

To avoid unnecessary worry about your child's sleep habits, must take into account: 1) as he grows up he sleeps less and 2) two children of the same age can have very different schedules. They won't always sleep the same number of hours, since each child has their customs that can be affected by different factors.

A preschooler may be so busy learning new things that the stimulus they experience changes the quantity and quality of their sleep.. When you are excessively tired, resists going to bed. You may find it hard to fall asleep and when you finally do, the dream will surely be restless.

Another factor that affects it is the disease. Sick child needs more sleep than usual until fully recovered.
The children, unconsciously, sometimes use sleep to avoid unpleasant situations. Fear of school, to failure or to the hoodlums of the neighborhood, can induce your refusal to get up in the morning. Although the same fears sometimes have totally opposite effects in another child.

Amount of sleep: The newborn needs a lot of sleep. During the first week, sometimes sleeps 23 hours a day, but not everything is the same. Often has a restless sleep that lasts for longer or shorter periods. You wake up mainly because of hunger or some other discomfort. After the first week of your life, spend more time awake or half awake (food intake, bathroom, diapering).
When he grows up he sleeps much less. At three months, you can sleep for twelve hours in a row and during the day take several naps that will decrease. When he is one year old he usually sleeps 14 oh 15 hours a day, including two naps. After two years he sleeps 13 oh 14 hours, including a nap. At four years old he sleeps 11 oh 12 hours a day, including a nap. Upon entering school, their schedule is affected by their homework and their integration into family life.. Some children feel more tired than others and go to sleep very early. Between the 6 and 10 years, usually need only 10 u 11 hours of sleep. Later, homework and other activities keep you awake longer. Now maybe he'll sleep alone 9 hours.

Circumstances favorable to sleep: Favorable circumstances for sleep can make it easier for you while helping you to become more peaceful. A newborn has to sleep in a crib with high rails to prevent it from falling to the ground. Pillows and duvets are dangerous because the child can cover themselves with them and make it difficult to breathe. Up to three years, a moderately hard and flat mattress will be used.

If the child is afraid of being in the dark in his room, a small light will be left on until you fall asleep.

You can't expect a child to spend a whole night, not even a nap, quietly covered by the sheets. To keep it from getting cold, season appropriate sleeping bags or one-piece pajamas can be used. Even preschoolers, they will appreciate this type of pajamas for winter.

It's so bad to put too many clothes on to sleep, like little, because if it is hot, will not sleep comfortably. When the temperature is summer, the infant does not need clothes other than a diaper and a light shirt.
The infant can easily fall asleep anywhere, but it is better to avoid sudden and unnecessary noises. If you sleep outdoors, you will be protected with a mosquito net and away from smoke and dust.
You should not be forced to sleep with the light off, if you fear the dark. Some children fall asleep more difficult when it is still daylight, but they get used to it after a week or two.

Most children enjoy reading or listening to stories before going to sleep.,

Sleeping in the parents' room:
No child should share a room with their parents. If for any reason it is necessary for you to sleep with them, it is essential to find a suitable place for your crib, before I value your presence too much.
Except in exceptional circumstances, parents won't take him to bed when he's scared. Your proximity will momentarily comfort you for some time., but few children are willing to return to their beds afterwards, when the anxiety is gone. Even during illnesses or seasons when you are plagued by all kinds of fears, you will be encouraged and comforted in your own crib and your own room.

Movements and positions: Infants and young children move frequently during sleep. A healthy newborn, while he sleeps, makes movements with the lips as if sucking, blinks and twists hands and feet. Whimper as if talking. Your breathing is almost always rapid and irregular. When it grows, moves continuously and adopts positions that seem extremely uncomfortable to an adult: crooked neck, arms and legs excessively bent on the abdomen, legs dangling from the crib or knees almost touching the chest. These positions are normal, healthy and flowing in all infants and young children. Sleeping on your stomach is a safe position, if there are no pillows or loose sheets that can interfere with your breathing, in addition to helping you clear secretions and mucus (nose and throat when you have a cold).

When a child resists sleeping: It is a common occurrence among 6 and 9 months, that although he is tired, cry when placed in the crib. Then the mother takes it and rocks it. Then put it back in the crib and the child cries again, repeating this ceremonial day after day.
To interrupt this cycle, Parents must make a firm resolution and be prepared to endure 10 a 20 minutes of crying during some nights. At bedtime, the mother should put the child in his crib and immediately leave the room, trying not to look while i'm crying, or at least trying not to see her. Normally the duration of crying decreases each day and stops after about three nights.

Resistance to bed reappears when the child turns two, approximately, usually when he has learned to get out of bed alone. If this happens, you will be immediately returned to bed, adopting a firm attitude and immediately leaving the room.

Dreams: If you sleep restlessly, talks or screams during sleep, it's almost certain that I'm dreaming. Sometimes they are pleasant dreams, but other times real nightmares.

Changes in habits, such as the first day of school or the first day you stop wearing plastic panties, they can give you nightmares. He will want to go to his parents' bed and will want to be rocked and hugged. Usually a few reassuring words and a glass of water will be enough, but sometimes you will want a light left on.

The content of your dreams may seem irrational. For example, during the day you will be happy in the company of animals that at night will frighten you with their ferocity.

Many times dreams are a reflection of what the child did or saw before going to bed (radio or television programs, school events and other activities). Normally a preschooler cannot remember what he has dreamed of., but a preteen, not only does he remember it but perhaps he will spontaneously speak about it. Let him talk about his dreams, especially if they are distressing. This will help you prevent these nightmares from recurring.

Rites and habits: Everyone performs some kind of ritual before going to bed. For a somewhat older adult or child it may be simply undressing, take a bath, brushing teeth or putting on comfortable clothes at a certain time of the night. If he is young, he will want a story read aloud to him, have his favorite rag doll near the bed, give a kiss to all the family members saying good night, recite your prayers or wait for your mother to tuck you in. The child who has become accustomed to a certain routine or habits, keep asking them. This routine gives you the sense of security you need and makes you happier than a series of unpredictable surprises.. Parents should not be rigid and severe, because they will give you the feeling that going to bed is something unpleasant and annoying. Unlike, they should turn it into a game, in the opportunity to learn new things, how to undress alone, fix their own clothes and bathe. However, care should be taken that this ritual does not take too long or is too complex and exciting.

If you sometimes do not cooperate, you may have taken a too long nap. In this case, it will be left for later or the daily ritual will be lengthened. There are children who resist going to bed, per system. They ask for a glass of water, more stories, go to the bathroom, more glasses of water, etc. Getting angry is useless. If the mother stands firm and limits the ritual, although allowing some flexibility, the child will probably respond appropriately to the limits she places on him. You will argue less and feel more willing to separate from the rest of the family to go to bed.

Many children want to take a toy to bed, their favorite blanket or any other object that represents safety for them, as well as thumb sucking, for example. Some parents believe that the time has come to stop these habits when the child has grown somewhat. They should not worry because he himself abandons them, at approximately four years.
See also Thumb sucking; Nightmares

Suppositories.

They are pharmaceutical preparations that are introduced through the rectum. Most are shaped like small cones or two and a half centimeter cylinders. (half centimeter thickness, approximately).
There are two kinds of suppositories. The most common is made with soap or glycerin and is used to induce bowel movements. Those of this type, should only be used when prescribed by the doctor, because if they are used too often, habit interferes with normal bowel movement.

The second class of suppositories is specially made to contain an active drug., that it is not interesting to administer it orally. For example, a child with a high fever may vomit so much that it is very difficult to keep the medicine that will reduce
fever. In this case, the doctor will prescribe a suppository that contains the appropriate medicine to lower the fever..

Instructions for inserting a suppository. It will enter the anus gently. The child's buttocks will be squeezed for a few moments, so that he does not expel it. If it does, wait a few minutes before inserting it again.

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