It is a disruption in the fluency of language caused by the repetition of certain sounds, prolongation of others and hesitation when speaking. The child who stutters while speaking, you can avoid it when you sing, repeat a memory lesson or act out a performance. There is a case between 125 boys and is much more common in boys than girls, but you don't know why.
Transient stuttering: Between the 2 and 5 years, most children go through a temporary stuttering period. It will usually go away after six months to a year.
Parents who don't realize this stuttering is completely normal, they can make the child believe that he really has a serious defect. They show their concern in the expression on their face, completing what the child was going to say and constantly saying: "Start over" or "don't talk so fast". It is best not to say anything, nor make him repeat the sentences and accept this stuttering as a normal phase of his development.
If it persists or worsens, the case will be presented to the doctor, who may find emotional causes and can help solve them.
Tartamudeo permanente. It begins when the child realizes his speech difficulties and tries to avoid them. By straining to pronounce the words without hesitation, your muscles move more stiffly and you stutter helplessly. Then get mad, patalea, shake your head and perform all kinds of maneuvers of this kind, trying to pronounce the words well. Sometimes these movements will show how difficult it is for you to pronounce a certain word.. Other times it will avoid certain words, will not answer the caller, nor when the phone rings. To correct this defect, attendance at a specialized clinic is necessary. Nothing is known about the origin of stuttering; therefore there is no specific treatment.
Normally the testicles of the boy descend from the abdomen to the scrotum (the bag of skin that hangs under the penis) shortly before birth. However, one or both testicles may be retained in the abdomen, after delivery, particularly if it is a premature child. In most of these cases they descend shortly after birth; However, if the child is two years old and the testicles have not yet descended, the doctor will be consulted.
Many boys have especially sensitive testicles and rise when they feel cold or someone touches their thighs or scrotum.. This is not a case of undescended testicles, rather, it is testicles with abnormal sensitivity and is much more common than true undescended testicles.
The doctor may need several tests to determine if it is one or the other case. Parents may find out when the child is sitting in a hot water basin. If the testicles ever reach the scrotum or the doctor can lower them, it is not a true case of undescended testicles and does not need any treatment. The testicle will descend normally before adolescence.
To correct undescended testicles, surgery and hormonal treatments are used. Surgeons consider the most suitable age to be 7 to the 10 years. Some doctors recommend hormonal treatment to achieve its descent without any surgical intervention.. If this is necessary anyway, parents and doctor should explain the reason for the operation to the child, assuring you that afterwards it will be completely normal.
The boy who only has a lack of descent of one of the testicles develops normally in terms of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics such as hair and tone of voice. However, the other testicle needs to be normalized so it doesn't feel different.
If neither testicle has descended to the scrotum and an operation is not used to normalize its position, the testicles atrophy or wither and the child is sterile.
See also Colic; Stomach ache; Contagious diseases; Dizziness; Vomiting
It is a disease that affects the brain and nerves. A child who has contracted tetanus has seizures, your muscles become stiff and your jaw spasms, that prevent you from opening your mouth. Spasms can also occur in other muscles. If a child is suspected of having tetanus, the doctor will be notified immediately.
Tetanus is caused by a bacteria that produces a powerful poison.
Since the bacillus cannot grow if it is exposed to oxygen, installs into deep tissues, to which it does not reach. Tetanus often develops from a wound caused by a puncture or in children with extensive destruction of organic tissues.
The tetanus bacillus lives in the intestines of domestic animals and infects the soil that has been in contact with their stools.. The child can step on them and get the bacillus, that will not act until it manages to enter the tissues of the body, usually through a puncture wound. For this reason, if a child is pricked and has a cut that does not bleed, a doctor will be consulted immediately. In the meantime, the wound will be cleaned with an oxidant., for example, hydrogen peroxide and covered with sterile gauze.
The best protection against tetanus is to- tetanus xoid, a type of vaccine. Usually, infants are inoculated together with pertussis and diphtheria in a single injection called trivalent.
Inoculation begins when the child has 2 oh 3 months. The dose is then repeated at 3 oh 4 months and finally at 4 oh 5 months. Some doctors consider it necessary to start immunization earlier, when the child is only one month old, repeat the dose at 2 oh 3 months and finally at 3 oh 4 months. Booster doses are inoculated when the child is 15 a 18 months, to the 3 years, to the 6 years and 12 years. Since then, booster doses will only be needed each 6 oh 7 years.
Tetanus toxoid is effective in the prevention of tetanus in the proportion of almost one hundred percent. To treat tetanus once it has been contracted, tetanus antitoxin is very efficient. It is used in cases of wounds in people who were not immunized.
See also Cuts and scratches; Immunization; Injections; Bites and stings
It is an uncontrollable spasm of certain muscles. The child with a tic may suddenly blink, shrug your shoulders incessantly, cough or huff. Cheeks sometimes twitch in a nervous twitch, shakes the neck from side to side and in some cases shakes the entire body. Tics occur more frequently and are easier to notice when the child is emotionally stressed or upset, that when your nervous system is not excited.
It can be quite difficult to figure out the causes of a tic disorder., as they can be psychological even if they don't seem like it and therefore psychological tests and consultation with a psychiatrist are often very helpful.
If a child has a nervous tic, the doctor will be consulted, but you will never try to stop your movements by force. The child does not control the muscles that cause nerve spasms at will and pressure tends to worsen the tic.
See also Dance of San Vito
They are contagious diseases caused by fungi, sometimes itchy. In the body, come in the form of small round spots. Growing up, the center is free and the eruption looks like a circle. On the head it is characterized by red and scaly spots where the hair falls, breaking near the root. When the infection is located between the toes (athlete's foot) skin cracks and stings. On the sole and edges of the foot, skin appears scaly and ulcerated. If this is believed to be the case of the child, the doctor will be advised who will prescribe appropriate medications to combat this fungus.
It is spread by contact with people, dogs, gatos, brushes, infested combs and furniture. Care should be taken that the child does not scratch the affected area because it could spread to other regions of the body.
Generally indicates that something is irritating the respiratory tract, and that the body tries to free itself of it. Some of the most common causes are:
■ Respiratory infections such as bronchitis, the common cold, the croup, pneumonia, sinusitis and whooping cough.
■ Allergies such as asthma and hay fever.
■ The passage into the windpipe or lungs of small objects or food particles.
■ Accidental passage into the trachea or lungs of chemicals.
A chronic cough can be caused by tuberculosis or cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. There are times when the child coughs to get attention.
The way to treat cough depends mainly on the causes that have caused it and to determine them, the doctor will probably advise a chest x-ray and allergy tests.
Usually, coughing serves to mobilize irritant substances or elements that can get stuck in the respiratory tract, so you should not try to suppress it. If it causes the child fatigue or interferes with their sleep, the doctor will prescribe a cough suppressant, but it will never be given without first consulting him.
The doctor can take the following steps to relieve your child's cough:
■ In case of respiratory infection, he can prescribe antibiotics, as well as increasing the humidity of your room, since humid air makes breathing easier.
■ If it is a nasal allergy, can prescribe some antihistamine medicine, to prevent or relieve allergic reactions.
■ If an object has entered the windpipe or lungs, it may need to be surgically removed.
See also Asthma; Bronchitis; Crup; Cystic fibrosis; Hay fever; Humidification; Whooping cough; Tuberculosis
It is a contagious disease caused by bacteria. It starts like a common cold: mucus, low fever and dry cough. After a few days the child has severe coughing fits, that get worse at night and end with a rattle (as if holding my breath) can cause vomiting.
If one of these symptoms is noticed in a child, as well as if you have been exposed to contagion and are not vaccinated, the doctor will be notified immediately.
Whooping cough is spread by sneezing. So when the affected child sneezes, the nose and mouth will be covered with a tissue, which will then burn in a safe place.
The disease is spread during the first seven days after contracting it and lasts up to three weeks after declaring itself. If the child has been exposed to the infection and has not been vaccinated, the doctor will probably recommend its isolation during 14 days. After the illness is over, is immunized.
The pertussis vaccine is usually given in conjunction with the diphtheria and tetanus vaccine., in a single injection called trivalent. The first dose is usually given to 2 oh 3 months; however some physicians recommend that immunization be started when the infant is one month old and that doses be repeated at 3 oh 4 months and, Finally, to the 4 oh 5 months. Then there are the booster doses that are inoculated one at a time. 15 to the 18 months and then at 3 years.
All children should be vaccinated against this disease, can be fatal at any age, but the death rate is much higher in children under one year of age who have not been vaccinated. The vaccine is so common and widespread that the disease is almost non-existent today., but potentially it is still very dangerous for a child who is not immunized.
See also Diphtheria; Contagious diseases; Immunization; Injections
Children have a natural tendency to put things in their mouth.
Obviously this tendency is dangerous because the child can swallow a foreign or harmful object. If you swallow an inedible object, you must not lose your cool, because it could scare you j ^ since any inedible object can be dangerous if swallowed, the doctor will be notified. If the object is sharp (a tack, a needle, an open safety pin, etc.), the doctor will want to look at it through the x-ray screen to determine if an operation is necessary to remove it.
Small, flat objects, such as
If the child swallows an iron or steel object, the doctor may make you swallow a small magnet attached to a string.
Using an X-ray machine, you can maneuver the magnet until it attracts the object and then it will slide until it is extracted..
fruit pits, coins, raw beans and buttons, will pass through the digestive system without damaging it and after a few days will be expelled with the stools. You will not be given laxatives which would be useless and could be harmful; instead they will be given starchy foods like bread, mashed potatoes, asparagus, etc., that will help the foreign object to pass more easily through the digestive tract. If the child has abdominal pain or vomiting, the doctor will be notified immediately or taken to a hospital.
Protect the child away from small objects; for example, the button box should be in a safe place out of your sight. A necklace can be very dangerous if it breaks and the beads are scattered..
When your diapers are changed, the mother should always be careful to immediately close the safety pins, as you remove them from the diaper. A closed safety pin has the potential to pass through the digestive tract without damaging it, while if it is open, it's much more difficult.
Toys with small parts that can be easily detached will not be given., for example, dolls with glass eyes, buttons or bells. You will also not be given objects that can be broken into fragments small enough for you to swallow or put them up your nose., reaching the trachea and lungs.
When I'm old enough to understand, the mother should encourage him to hand over any dangerous objects that he may find. He will then thank you and replace what you have given him with an object that does not offer any danger.. You should also remember that the child is a great imitator and if you observe that she puts an open safety pin in her mouth or her father holds the nails with his teeth, more than likely to repeat the action at the first opportunity.
Children can develop all kinds of urinary disorders, including too frequent urination, the rare, urination of blood and enuresis (urinary incontinence after age four). The doctor will be consulted if the child is suspected of having a problem of this type.
Too frequent urination: It is a very common disorder. This is often a urinary tract infection. They are often part of this disorder, pain and stinging when urinating. The newborn cannot express his discomfort in words, but he's feverish, irritable and crying often. The doctor will find out if there is an infection, examining urine.
Most infections of this type are resolved with antibiotics. If that is not the case, there may be an abnormality of the kidneys, the bladder or ureters (tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder). In other cases it will be the urethra (conduit through which urine passes outside). When there is a urinary tract infection, the doctor may examine them indirectly: a pyelogram (X-ray of the kidneys and ureters) or by direct means: the cystoscope (instrument to examine the inside of the bladder). Too frequent urination is sometimes a symptom of anxiety. Urinating often and in greater amounts than before can be a symptom of diabetes.
Infrequent urination. Occurs when the bladder holds urine due to an obstruction. Sometimes it is a symptom of the mental illness called hysteria. Decreased urine production is another cause. This decrease can be caused by nephritis (kidney disease), due to poisoning caused by the use of certain drugs or metals, or by obstruction of the urinary ducts.
Blood in the urine. When blood is seen in the urine of a child, the doctor should be notified immediately. However, it should be remembered that urine sometimes has a reddish tint, for example, when beets have been eaten. Boys bleed a little when urinary ammonia causes an ulcer at the opening of the urethra in the penis. Blood is bright red in color and appears only in the first few drops of urination. La nephritis, infections, certain types of anemia, poisoning or abnormalities of the urinary ducts, they can also cause blood to come out in the urine.
Enuresis: Bedwetting occurs frequently at night, but it can also occur during the day. It can have many causes: a urinary tract defect, an infection or emotional disorder. Or simply that the child sleeps so deeply that the fullness of his bladder is not able to wake him up.
See also Dehydration; Mellitus diabetes; Enuresis; Hysteria; Nephritis
They are quite common among children, but they are rarely serious. Anyway, whether immediately or shortly after a head injury, the child loses consciousness, must be seen by a doctor as soon as possible. It could be a bleeding inside the skull.
If the child hit his head hard, you will be kept still and alert to any of the following symptoms:
■ Strong headache, that is not relieved by aspirin.
■ Persistent vomiting. More than once or twice after the hit.
■ Difficulty speaking.
■ Uneven pupils.
■ Double vision or deviation of one eye.
■ Weakness of a part of the body, with insecurity when walking, lameness or preferential use of an arm or a leg.
■ Excessive sleepiness.
■ Seizures. If they appear, the child's head will be turned to one side and it will be monitored that they cannot drown, and vomiting. A folded tissue will be placed between your teeth to keep your mouth open and your doctor will be called as soon as possible.
If the child has any of these symptoms within twelve hours of the trauma, the doctor will be notified immediately. It may happen that several days after the trauma, a persistent headache starts, drowsiness and behavior changes, due to the slow accumulation of blood that clots. If any of these symptoms appear, the doctor will be consulted as soon as possible.
See also Coma; Convulsions; Fever
It is a contagious and serious disease caused by bacteria, cane-shaped, called tuberculosis bacillus. Usually develops in the lungs, but it can nest anywhere on the body.
There are two types of tuberculosis, the one that contracts for the first time and the one that contracts for the second time, third or fourth time.
When the child develops a primary infection (contracted for the first time) the invading bacillus is killed by white blood cells or isolated by cells and fibers that prevent its spread throughout the body. The child does not feel ill and there are no symptoms of illness.
True infection occurs when the body's resistance drops due to disease, a diet poor in nutrients or other causes. So, the bacillus breaks into the body and multiplies. It spreads rapidly and the body's defenses can no longer destroy or isolate it. The child has fever, lose weight, has a cough and is weak. Primary infection is more common among children who have not yet reached adolescence. The secondary form is more common among adolescents.
If a child appears to have tuberculosis or has been exposed to contagion, the doctor should be notified immediately, since with a good treatment, may heal in a year or two.
Treatment will surely start in a hospital (in some cases it may be at home). Although doctors generally rely on drugs to cure tuberculosis, sometimes surgical intervention is necessary.
The tuberculin test is a very simple and common method to find out if a child is infected with the tuberculosis bacillus.. Most doctors do this test when the child is one year old and then repeat it periodically. A harmless drop of tuberculin (liquid prepared from dead tuberculosis bacilli) injected or inoculated by scratching the child's skin. If after two days a red and swollen spot appears, the test is positive and means that the child has been infected with the tuberculosis bacillus. Negative test indicates that the child has not contracted the disease. When the reaction is positive, it is necessary to examine the child with the help of X-rays, at the end
to determine if the disease has spread. Adults who have been in contact with the child, should also be examined, in order to find out where the bacillus comes from. Between children, most cases of tuberculosis, come from the contagion of one of your family members. Your siblings should have a tuberculin test to find out if they have been infected as well.
Some children who live in regions where there is a lot of tuberculosis and others who belong to a family where there has been a case of this disease, should be immunized with injections of the Bacilo Calmette-Guérin vaccine.