Smallpox, Chickenpox, Poisons, Warts, Virus, Vitamins, Vomiting, Zumaque

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Smallpox vaccine

This should be inoculated to all children of 1 a 2 years; However, the doctor may postpone it if the child has eczema or a rash since vaccination in these conditions can produce very violent reactions..
The doctor places a drop of vaccine on the skin (arm, leg or buttocks) and make a few small scratches or scarifications, through which the skin absorbs it. After three days a reddish papule or welt appears, that produces stinging. The welt soon turns into a white ulcer.

Unless the child scratches, it is convenient to leave it uncovered. To cover, it must be done with a sterile gauze in order to avoid any septic process.

The reaction occurs from the eighth to the eleventh day. The child may feel sick, have a fever and lose your appetite. When the ulcer dries up, forms a scab, that falls after about three weeks. The child should not be bathed until the scab has fallen off. In the meantime it will only be washed with a sponge. If you have no reaction, is that the vaccine has not "turned on" and it is necessary to vaccinate it again.

Children need to be vaccinated every five years. If they react like the first time, it is a sign that immunization has almost completely disappeared. Otherwise, the reaction is not so intense and only a small papule appears that lasts a few days and disappears without leaving any sign.

Smallpox can prey on a child who has never been vaccinated or if many years have passed since the last vaccination.

It is spread by a virus through direct contact with the cough or mucus of a person with smallpox, with pus from your ulcers or with objects you have used (handkerchiefs or clothes). The disease begins with chills, fever, vomiting, headache and back pain. The temperature can reach or exceed 39 ° C. The mouth and throat are ulcerated.

After three or four days red spots appear, first in the face and in the hands, then on the trunk and legs. Later these spots turn into purulent ulcers. When it recovers, fever subsides and sores dry up and crust over.
If a child is suspected of contracting smallpox, the doctor should be notified immediately.


see Contagious diseases; Immunization; Injections; Virus


see Humidification


It is an extremely contagious disease, produced by a virus. The first symptom is a rash on the chest and back, that spreads quickly to the rest of the body. The rash soon becomes small pimples and later small blisters or vesicles, that in a few hours break and turn into scabs. Other pimples appear again while the previous ones turn into blisters. This process takes about three or four days. The small blisters or vesicles dry up by the fifth or seventh day and most of the scabs fall off by the tenth day although some may remain until the twentieth.
Commonly, the child's general condition is good and he is not very depressed, although sometimes you may have a slight fever. In this case, aspirin will be administered at the appropriate doses for their age.. Some children have vomiting, back pain and headaches.

Chickenpox occurs in children between the ages of 2 and the 8 years, but it can also be seen in newborns. In this case, greater medical surveillance will be needed.

During the period of the eruption, it should be ensured that the child does not scratch, since if it does, blisters can easily become infected, which would cause subsequent scars. To prevent these, they will cut their nails to the maximum and wash their hands, at least three times a day. Baths with water, to which one or two tablespoons of salt will be added, performed once or twice a day, will relieve itching. If this is very intense, the doctor will be communicated, who can prescribe any medication to improve it. You will also be asked if any of the vesicles become infected..

In chickenpox, new granites are formed, while the previous ones are turning into blisters. Later these break and dry, forming scales that can come off. Skin color can vary the appearance of the rash.

Chickenpox appears at 14 oh 21 days after the child has been infected and will be able to return to school within a week after the
illness became apparent. The contagious period ranges from one day before symptoms appear, until the vesicles have transformed into scabs. Once the disease passed, the child is immunized.

Children with another serious illness such as leukemia, or those receiving treatment with corticosteroids or radiation therapy, must be carefully protected from chickenpox, since this would cause very serious complications.
See also Contagious diseases; Virus


see Cuts and scrapes; Hemorrhage; First care

Poisons and poisoning.

Every year many children are accidentally poisoned. In the U.S, for example, some 500.000. Of these some 500 approximately die or become so seriously ill that hospitalization is necessary.
Treatment of poisonings: Next we will list the guidelines that must be followed if a child has ingested a poison and it is known what it is.
■ You will be given the appropriate antidote. Often, in the same bottles the corresponding antidote is indicated. You can use the table there for these purposes. However, liquids should never be given to an unconscious child, although they are part of the antidote.
■ You will vomit only when the antidote requires it., but it will not be done when he is seizure or unconscious.
■ The doctor will be called or the child will be taken to the nearest hospital, taking with him the bottle with the label, so that the doctor can determine what poison it is and if possible how much he has taken.
If the child has ingested any poison, but it is not known what it is, the following will be done:
■ The doctor will be called.
■ If you cannot contact the doctor immediately, the emergency service will be contacted, where they can inform of the first aid that must be carried out in the specific case that they are consulted.
■ If there is no possibility of carrying out the above measures, you will be quickly taken to the nearest hospital.
If the child is caught eating or drinking something that is not known to be poisonous, it will always be remembered that any unknown substance is a potential poison. The doctor or emergency service will be called to find out if it is poisonous and if so, the antidote to be administered.

Poisoning symptoms are not always immediately apparent, but they include seizures, diarrhea, paleness, flush, nausea and vomiting. If you have ingested a corrosive poison, your mouth and tongue may be burned.. Aspirin and tranquilizers can make you sleepy or unconscious.

How children are poisoned: The kitchen, bathroom, garage, the basement and bedrooms are prone to poisonings. On the kitchen and bathroom shelves (easily accessible to children) cleaning supplies are often stored, solvents and even insecticides. The bathroom medicine cabinets contain pills and cosmetics. Bedside tables in bedrooms contain tranquilizers, insomnia pills and aspirin. All of these medications can kill a child if you take enough of them.

The taste or smell of a substance will rarely prevent you from eating or drinking it. The child who worries his mother by refusing a glass of milk or an orangeade, will gladly drink ink, kerosene or liquid gas for lighters.

Children are able to drink or eat cola, pencil leads, paintings, solvents, tobacco, matches, diet pills, turpentine, cosmetics and countless substances in common use, that looking harmless, they can be harmful.

Medicines are the main cause of all poisonings and among them all, aspirin is the one that causes the most accidents. If a child swallows several adult aspirin or swallows a large number of infant aspirin, is in serious danger.


■ Administer ipecac syrup, diluting a tablespoon in half a glass of water, O well

■ Insert your finger until it touches the back of the throat, waiting until nausea ensues, O well

■ Administer a tablespoon of mustard in half a glass of water, O well

■ Mix three tablespoons of salt in a glass of hot water.

■ When it comes to inducing vomiting, the child should be made to lie on his stomach in a bed, head hanging off the edge. You can also lie face down on your caregiver's knees, thus preventing you from inhaling the vomited and going into your lungs. A container will be placed under your head, in order to collect the vomit and be able to show it to the doctor, who may want to analyze it to determine the type of poison that the child has ingested.


■ If a child comes into contact with strong acids, alkalis or other corrosive substances, contaminated clothing should be removed immediately, immediately cleaning the affected skin area with plenty of water. If the poison is oily and does not go away with water, soap and hot water will be used, rubbing vigorously and then rinsing. The doctor will then be called or the child will be taken to a hospital emergency room.

■ If poison splashes into the eye, it will be kept open while a jet of clean water is applied, for several minutes. The doctor will then be called or the child will be taken to the emergency room at a nearby hospital.

Cleaning products rank second on the poison list. Metal cleaning supplies, from the toilet bowl, waxes and varnishes for floors and furniture, bleaches and ammonia, are products that are used daily and are frequently within the reach of children. Many parents do not notice or ignore the notices placed on the labels of these items.. Soaps and detergents are often stored in base cabinets, where a child can easily reach, and the same happens with varnishes of
furniture, floor polishes and waxes. Many parents do not realize that the kerosene-type solvent found in all of these products is an extremely dangerous ingredient.. Insecticides, herbicides and rodenticides also cause poisonings and swallowing them is not the only way to poison yourself. Some can be absorbed through the skin and prolonged inhalation of their vapors can be dangerous. Instructions for use and storage should be read.

Prevent poisonings: One way to protect young children is to keep harmful substances out of their sight and reach.. When they grow up they will be taught that it is dangerous to eat, drinking and smelling all kinds of strange liquids and powders that may be found in or around the house. It will be explained to them that when they see something unknown, it is better to ask what it is. It should always be remembered that curiosity is part of a child's normal development. Despite the teachings, they should be closely watched.

To remove hazards from home, these instructions will be followed:
■ Flush unused pills and liquid medicines down the toilet.. They will not be thrown away, because there children can find them.
■ Store medicines after use. They will not be left within the reach of children.
■ When the child is sick, Medicines will not be talked about as if they were sweets so that they can swallow them without putting difficulties. It is extremely dangerous for a child to mistake medicines for chocolates or candies.
■ Do not put cleaning products in cups, glasses, food bottles or cans.
■ Do not leave cleaning cloths or sponges soaked in furniture polish or other cleaning fluids anywhere.
■ Never leave a poisonous product half stored. The phone or doorbell will be allowed to ring until the poison is in a safe place..
■ Check periodically that there are no poisons within the reach of children.
■ Do not keep poisonous products and food in the same cupboard.
See also Accidents; First aid kits; Coma; Convulsions; Emetics; Bites and stings; Nutrition; Recipes; Artificial respiration; Vomiting; Poison sumac.

Antidotes for internal poisonings

Acids. Vomiting will not be induced.
Some 30 g of milk of magnesia in a large glass of water.
Alkalis. Vomiting will not be induced.
Two tablespoons of vinegar diluted in two glasses of water will be administered, followed by the white of two fresh eggs or 60 g of olive oil.
Alcohol. A glass of milk will be administered and vomiting will be induced. A tablespoon of soda will be mixed in a quarter of a liter of hot water and the child will be allowed to drink whatever he wants.
Ammonia. See Alcalis.
Aspirin and headache tablets.
A glass of milk will be administered.
Vomiting will be caused. A tablespoon of baking soda will be mixed in a glass of hot water, leaving the child to drink what he wants. Barbiturates. If the child is conscious, you will be induced to vomit. You will be given two tablespoons of fig salts in two glasses of water, followed by a strong coffee or cola-based drink and they will try to get you going. If you are unconscious, you will be kept warm until the doctor arrives or until you are admitted to the hospital, giving him artificial respiration if necessary. Codeine. If the child is conscious, you will be given a glass of milk, followed by two tablespoons of fig salts diluted in two glasses of water. This will be followed by a very strong coffee and an effort will be made to keep it moving.. If you are unconscious, You will be kept warm until the doctor arrives and if necessary you will undergo artificial respiration. Colonia. See Alcohol.
Detergents. See Petroleum, derived from. Food poisoning. Vomiting will be provoked and two tablespoons of fig salts will be administered in two glasses of water. Stimulants (amphetamines). A glass of milk will be administered and vomiting will be induced. Gasoline. See Petroleum, derived from. Cough syrups. See Codeine.
Bleach. See Alcalis.

Drain cleaners. See Alcalis. Shaving lotion. See Alcohol.
Carbon monoxide. Will take the child outdoors, giving artificial respiration if necessary.
Petroleum, derived from. Vomiting should not be induced. A glass of water or milk will be administered, followed by 60 g of vegetable oil.
Kerosene. See Petroleum, derived from. Removes nail polish. See Alcohol. Cold tablets. A glass of milk will be administered and vomiting will be induced.
Then a tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda will be mixed in a glass of hot water and the child will be made to drink as much as possible.
Tranquilizers. See Barbiturates. Turpentine. See Petroleum, derived from. Poisons against insects and rats.
With arsenic
. A glass of milk will be administered and vomiting will be induced.
Child DDT. Vomiting will be provoked and two teaspoons of fig salts diluted in two glasses of water will be administered. With strychnine. A glass of milk will be administered. Vomiting will be induced and artificial respiration will be given if necessary, leaving the child still.
With sodium fluoride. Two tablespoons of milk of magnesia and a glass of milk will be administered. Vomiting will follow.
With phosphorus. Vomiting will be induced and 100 g of mineral oil.
In no case, vegetable nor animal.
They will then be administered 100 g of hydrogen peroxide.
Finally, a tablespoon of baking soda will be mixed in a glass of hot water, making the child drink as much as he can.
Iodine. Cornstarch or flour will be mixed with water, until it forms a thick paste, what will be given to the child. Will be diluted 50 g of salt in a glass of hot water. The child will be made to drink until he vomits a clear liquid. Finally, you will be given a glass of milk.

Poisonous plants

Lily of the valley
Lily lily

Plant antidotes
(Notify your doctor if you have ingested one of the following plants)

Jimson Cane. The fruits are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Cerezo. The leaves and twigs are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Poinsetia. The juice of the leaves, stem, flowers and fruits is poisonous. Milk will be administered and some 50 g mineral or vegetable oil. Wisteria. The seeds and pods are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Buttercup. All parts are poisonous, especially the juice. One or two glasses of milk will be administered and 60 g of vegetable or mineral oil. Poisonous fungi. All parts can be poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Afterwards, two tablespoons of Fig tree salt will be given in two glasses of water..Jacinto. The bulb is poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Lily lily. The leaves and rhizomes are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Lily of the valley. Leaves, flowers and roots are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Mistletoe. The fruit is poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Narciso. The bulb is poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Potato. The green spots called “Sun” and the sprouts of potato tubers are poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Castor oil. All parts, especially the root, They're poisonous. Vomiting will be caused. Rhubarb. The leaves are poisonous. Give milk to the child and make him vomit.


They are small tumors with hardened skin and tend to appear in groups of three or four., although they may be more numerous or solitary. Most appear on the surface of the hand or the sole of the foot. Scientists believe they are produced by a virus. Children should be warned of the dangers of handling warts, since the virus can spread and increase the number of them.

There are several effective and painless methods of curing warts, among which is liquid nitrogen, salicylic acid plasters, special solutions or their cauterization by means of electricity, but it is better if they are removed by a doctor.

Some doctors prescribe hypnotic-type techniques, consisting of self-suggestion to the individual that the wart will disappear with or without medication after a few months. Almost all warts disappear in about two years, without any kind of treatment.


They are living organisms so small that it is not possible to see them with the ordinary microscope.. They are even smaller than bacteria and enter the body through a wide variety of means, drinks, foods, inhalations and through injections or skin fissures. Once inside the body, grow inside cells and multiply invading more and more cells.

Viruses cause infectious diseases such as polio, the flu, the measles, chickenpox, smallpox, mumps and the common cold. Viruses can also cause specific diseases in certain cells. Liver cells infected »by a virus produce hepatitis; those of the brain, an encephalitis, and those of the skin, ulcerations.

Doctors do not know of any truly effective remedy for this type of disease., but some of them confer immunity once contracted, preventing the child from suffering them again.

The child can be immunized using vaccines. These are obtained from the virus that carries the disease against which immunization is desired.. In the event that the child contracts a viral disease, the doctor will explain to the mother how to take care of him to reduce the discomfort and avoid further complications.
Tired sight, see hyperopia; Myopia; Eyes, health of


They are necessary for good health and proper growth. It is possible to provide the child with all the vitamins he needs (except for vitamin D in some cases) with a balanced diet consisting of well-prepared foods.

Incalculable sums of money are spent each year on arbitrarily self-prescribed vitamins. Mothers feel much calmer when their children take vitamins through tablets, although they know that the child probably does not need them.

Without the guidance of the doctor, it is possible to give too much vitamin A, D and others. These vitamins are fat soluble and are stored in the child's body, with sometimes harmful effects.

Vitamins work collaborating with each other and at the same time with other nutritional elements. The necessary amount of a certain vitamin, depends on the total of the remaining vitamins and nutrients stored in the body.

The content of vitamin compounds is obtained through various manufacturing procedures. Natural foods contain unknown nutritional elements, but essential.

Main foods in a child's diet and vitamins that each contains: eggs, A, B1S B2, C; milk, A, B,, B2, D, E; hake, D; oranges, A, B,, B2, C, E; flour, A, B,, B2, E; bananas, A, B,, B,, C; chicken, B,, B3; veal, A; vegetables, A, B,, B2, C.

To provide the child with the necessary vitamins it is better to rely on a balanced diet, except when the doctor prescribes a supplement of them.
A vitamin that the child does not always get in sufficient quantity is vitamin D, which helps the body absorb the calcium and phosphorus it needs, especially during the development of bones and teeth. Doctors and dietitians recommend a daily dose of vitamin D during the growth period, up to twenty years. Today most of the milk brands are enriched with vitamin D. One liter of milk contains the required daily amount. Exposure to sunlight also provides vitamin D. Ultraviolet rays from the sun or from a quartz lamp act on a substance contained in the skin and produce vitamin D.

The table that accompanies this section details the sources of origin of the six essential vitamins and how the body uses them.

VitaminFunctions in the bodyFoods from which they are obtained
AHelps tooth development and preserves skin, the lining tissues of the body cavities, the glands that produce digestive juices and contribute to night vision.Milk, cream, Butter, egg yolks, liver, kidney, fats, fish liver oil, green and yellow vegetables, cantalupo, peaches and alba-ricoques.
B, (Thiamina)Provides energy to the body. Helps to conserve the appetite, healthy mental attitude and normal muscle function.Lean pork, viscera, dried beans, green peas, walnuts, eggs, milk, cereal grains, enriched bread and cereals.
b2 (Riboflavin)Allows carbohydrates to supply heat and energy to the body.Liver, heart, kidneys, fortified cereal seeds, milk, cheese, eggs, and green leaves of vegetables.
C (Ascorbic acid)Increases resistance to infection. Facilitates the formation of teeth and bones. Needed to maintain healthy gums and body tissues.Citrus, tomatoes, melons, strawberries, green and red peppers, pineapple, col, bromquil, asparagus and vegetables of all kinds.
DFacilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus for the development of bones.Saltwater fish, milk enriched with vitamin D, fish liver oil.
NiacinFacilitates the healthy preservation of the skin and other body tissues.Meat, birds, fish, enriched whole wheat.


They are very common in children and infants. They have physical and emotional causes and the main ones are:

  • Swallowing a lot of air when breastfeeding or allergic reaction to certain foods, like cow's milk.
  • Any illness accompanied by a high fever, like the flu, pneumonia, scarlet fever, etc.
  • Certain abnormalities in the shape and position of the stomach or intestines.
  • Disorders from other organs of the body, like kidneys or ears.
  • Swallowing a poisonous substance.
  • Appendicitis.
  • Car trips, airplane, train or ship.
  • A psychological problem, for example, vomiting every morning out of fear of going to school or out of a desire for attention. These children need special care.

Vomiting should not be taken lightly, due to its many possible causes and because in most cases it is very important to initiate adequate treatment. There are three cases in particular that require further medical attention. 1) Vomiting accompanied by abdominal pain (possible appendicitis). 2) Persistent vomiting (that can cause dehydration). 3) Greenish vomiting (may mean that a bowel obstruction has occurred and bile has risen to the stomach).

When a child vomits without any other complications, must remain still without taking any food while waiting for the arrival of the doctor. You will only be offered a little water or weak tea. If you continue to vomit, no fluids will be given, not even water.
See also Dehydration; Stomach ache; Emetics; Gripe; Dizziness; Swallowing objects; Poisons and poisoning

Poison sumac

Poison sumac grows in clusters of three leaves, all coming from the same stem. The edges of the leaves can be lobed or serrated.

Poison sumac causes rashes. If a child spends a lot of time in woods and fields, you must know how to recognize and avoid these plants.

The poison sumac is like a vine or dwarf tree and consists of a stem with three flat leaves, that have a bright green color during the summer; when the leaves fall, turn reddish or orange. Next to the main stem, twisty little green flowers grow close to the leaves. In autumn and winter clusters of berries grow cerulean white.
There are different kinds of sumac with the same characteristics, that produce the same disease. A type of sumac that is also like a dwarf tree grows in swampy areas and has narrow fern-like leaves and hanging clusters of white berries..

The rash it produces is due to an oil made by the leaves, flores, fruit, stem, bark and roots of the plant. Clothes that have been in contact with this oil irritate the skin as much as the plants themselves, so they should be washed and cleaned before reuse. Cats and dogs that have been in contact with the plant can also cause the rash and should be decontaminated, bathing them.

If the child is found to have touched a poison sumac, they will be washed immediately with plenty of cold water and mild soap, twice at least, the hands and parts of the skin that have touched the sumac. Do not rub too hard or use brushes, sponges or other rough, bristly objects. Washing with soap fades or lessens oil irritation.

The rash appears a few hours to a few days after the child has touched the plant. At first the skin itches and itches and then it becomes inflamed and ends up ulcerating. If you scratch you can get infected, so your nails will be cut. To relieve the stinging, the affected skin will be immersed in running or salty water (a spoonful of the tea is enough, full of table salt for about half a liter of water) some 20 oh 30 minutes four or five times a day. A calamine lotion will be applied every two to three hours. Your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce itching..

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